Need motivation? Just do it

Just sharing a video that has given me an awful lot of amusement today from Shia LeBeouf.  I’m actually a big fan of videos for learning and inspiration, especially the TED series.  However, the latest motivational offering from Shia has gone viral (which was the point right) and has spawned hundreds of parodies thanks to the  – likely – intentional green background. Perhaps these reductionist messages are just what we need……

Anyway, I can’t help but watch it and think he actually nailed it.  Just to warn you it’s quite loud!

You know what, I think it does work in a TED style mashup.

But on a more serious point, here is the full video.  I also admire how he is brave in stepping out to explore his craft.



5 ways to stay updated with the careers world online

I tweeted (@careers_chap) last week asking people in the careers world stay up date.

tweet, tweet, tweet!

Everyone who tweeted back (not a biased poll then!) said the same stuff – they used social media, especially twitter for news and general conversation.  I think this harks back to my last blog post on “Why is everyone so busy”.  Technology in a way has become our new master rather than  a time saving slave.

So as we’re all so busy social media and the portable tech that goes with it does afford us quick and simple ways to stay up to date with CPD activity.  So for those of you working in or with an interest in the  world of careers work (especially if you’re new) here are five ways to stay current.

1) Twitter.  The CEIAG world is quite a small one.  I find on twitter that careers people/organisations who have been on there a while all follow each other.  Which is good because it means newbies have ready made lists to follow too.  This means you only need to follow a few accounts to get started.  From there just look at who they are following as well as looking at the lists people have compiled which you can follow as well.  Good places to start?  Well you could follow me! @careers_chap.

Also look at @CEGNETUK, @UKCareersChat, @newmanswords, @theCDI, @CareersEngland, @SecondaryCEIAG, @Tomstaunton84, @iCeGS, @pigironjoe @CareersDefender to get you started from a UK perspective.  It’s great to look internationally too such as CDAA_inc and @ceric_ca.  I’ve missed out lots of great ones as the list would be too long but this list is a good starting point.

2) LinkedIn.  Lucy Hawkins blogged  a really nice piece on her LinkedIn connections policy which I think is an important thinking point before you dip in and develop your network. The real power for staying up to date on this platform – in my opinion anyway –  is not the news feed (tends to be filled up with spammy inspiration quotes or news articles I can find myself) but with signing up to common interest groups.  Ones I’ve find useful include: Career Coach Forum, Careers Debate, UK HE Careers Professionals and AGCAS Careers Education.  I am members of others but in truth they aren’t particularly active which is important I feel.

3) Blogs.  I’m relatively new at this but I’ve found tremendous value in writing down my thoughts for my own CPD.  In addition it has meant I’ve sought out other bloggers and read their work all of which contributes to a wide range of views on practice and theory.  In March this year CEGNET produced their top 10 careers blogs which is a good starting point.  Most blogs also have a blog roll which mentions who they are tracking as well.

4) Journals.  The Careers in Theory blog has a great page which lists the relevant journals to careers work here.  The International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) is also  a proliferant producer of research in this area.  You can check out its list of publications here.

5) Ezines & articles.  These are normally published articles or news rounds up that act as news aggregators for your careers fix. You can usually sign up for alerts via email  or follow the associated twitter feed.  Here are a few I use at the moment.  Working Adviser Careers Round-Up, AGCAS Phoenix (this is subscription), Contactpoint Careerwise,  CDA New Zealand Ezine, AGR.

I know I will have missed some brilliant sources off my top 5.  Please add anything I’ve missed in the comments and I’ll keep this as a working document.  

Why is everyone so busy? Why our technological future hasn’t really delivered.

Chancing upon an article in the economist titled “Why is everyone so busy” was my muse for this post.  Quoting an early passage the piece centres around from the hugely influential British economist John Maynard Keynes who stated in 1939 when predicting future work/life balance:

“Our grandchildren would work around three hours a day—and probably only by choice”.

It resonates because it’s something I and many others can probably relate to.  With so many technological and socio-economic advances since the industrial revolution and indeed since the birth of the internet age, why does life feel so rushed and pressured? The article refers to the notion of perception and contrast rather than a reality that we actually all have less time.  This is succinctly summed up in the piece when it says:

To be pressed for time has become a sign of prosperity, an indicator of social status, and one that most people are inclined to claim.

This alludes to a paradigm of choice suggesting we have complete freedom and we are victims of our own self-determinism. But for me it really highlights the pernicious culture in the developed world of materialism and neoliberalism.  In these contexts the question of “what is success” could be measured by one’s wealth, professional status and social capital. So despite technology the gap between the have and the have nots is getting ever wider despite platitudes and policies by western governments to counter this.

The 2013 Oxfam report “Even it up” is well worth a read on this subject but it really adds validity to the attribution of policy as a driver for inequality. The Economist article also references this divide:

The struggle to earn a place on that narrow pedestal encourages people to slave away for incomparably long hours. So rising wages, rising costs, diminishing job security and more demanding, rewarding work are all squeezing leisure time

So there is the race to the top for the haves and the race to stay afloat for the have nots.  In the UK for example the huge rise in the number of workers on zero hour contacts and the paucity of investment in careers guidance (a proven and valuable component of any social mobility policy) really reinforces this systemic failure. Whilst still on this subject of the impact of careers guidance a recently commissioned “mobility manifesto” report for the Sutton Trust really hammers  home its value.  Governments take note!

Technological determinism has always been at the forefront of mainstream popular culture and prediction albeit following a divergent pattern.  For example we are often presented  with the  utopian (think Star Trek) and more box office, dystopian future (think Terminator). So where am I going with all this?  Well, I can’t help but think the combination of technological advancement and policy has not really worked out as the optimists may have intended.  Certainly not in the case of John Maynard Keynes predicted.

Many people have found the advancement of technology has eroded low skilled jobs and those in professional roles may not have seen the home working revolution we were promised (have you seen the traffic jams recently!). So it does make you wonder who the winners from us mere mortals really are doesn’t it?

Our life space has also suffered. Surely the most destructive device to work/life balance has to be the smart phone.  Again, I know many people who are “on call” well beyond their contracted hours and access and respond to work emails on their Blackberry because they feel compelled to.  Push notifications must seem to some to be the modern day Victorian servant bell.

Finally I am reminded of the story of the Mexican fisherman.  It’s well known but it’s stayed with me over the years.  For those of you unfamiliar please have a read because it’s a parable that  relates to a question I posed in a previous post, “What is Success?”

The moral of the story.  Sometimes we’re so busy trying to climb the mountain we forget the name of the mountain we’re trying to climb.  Food for thought.

Kolb – Experiential learning model: Lessons for reflective practice

I’m a great believer in experience shaping both our personalities and our careers.  The opportunity to learn from doing is often seen as high value and advantageous especially from an employee / employer perspective (Although those familiar with Bloom’s taxonomy will appreciate and argue that “application” is a mid-level form of learning and understanding).  We see this value in the push for obtaining work experience, especially in the HE sector in which I work where internships and year in industry placements are prize assets.

What got me thinking about learning and experience was really my own situation and how I started out in this line of work. This thought process then reminded me of David Kolb (1984) and his influential four stage “experiential learning cycle” which I’ve always liked and related to. Reflected graphically it looks like a circle but crucially Kolb suggests learning through experience is a collection of cycles that keep repeating as we pick up new experiences. The four stages in the cycle are as follows:

  1. Concrete Experience – (feeling).
  2. Reflective Observation (watching).
  3. Abstract Conceptualization (thinking).
  4. Active Experimentation (doing).

Each of these stages supports the next stage but crucially Kolb maintained that for effective learning to take place all four stages need to be completed (although not always in order).  It does however allow for people to jump in at different points.

Perhaps key here is the duality of reflection and learning and how that process occurs.  The example I will use here is the following statement.  We learn by reflection but equally reflect on our learning.

Kolb (1984) defined learning as simply: “the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience”

So here we are saying that new experiences can create the opportunity to process and gather new knowledge.

One of the main reasons I like the model is the relationship to existing career choice theory and how we develop our career.  In career development, planning and decision making we know individuals do not just gain control and understanding of their career simply by “doing things”.  For example, just moving from job to job as an activity doesn’t necessarily give an individual the understanding of the big question such as “who am I?”.    Here we are very much in the confines of socioeconomic or accident theory.  Doing is not enough in isolation.

Therefore, there is a strong correlation and relationship between Kolb’s experiential learning cycle and the newer career development and choice theories such as Savickas – Career Construction Theory, Krumboltz – Social Learning Theory and Super’s concept of vocational maturity.   All these theories involve reflective practice informing thoughts, behaviours, actions and the very concept of self and who we are.

Another strength is the process of how we train and mature as careers professionals could be argued to mirror  the four stage experiential learning model.

Concrete Experience: As unqualified careers practitioners before we enter training.  This is where we have accessed the role either as a client or perhaps in a prior life have been put in a situation where we have delved into supporting someone in their career.

Reflective Observation:  We start some formal CEIAG training.  For some it is via the NVQ route and for others the QCG route.  Either way for most practitioners we are put in the situation early on in our training whereby we observe qualified and experienced professionals doing the job.  We may then complete activities such as diaries/journals, group discussions and thought questions.  In other words stepping back from the experience and reviewing it.

Abstract Conceptualisation.  Making the link to theory based practice.  In training this would be the introduction of career and guidance theory and writing assignments.  It would be making the comparisons between what is experienced and observed and how this relates to our current knowledge.

Active Experimentation.  Would also start in our training and arguably continue for the rest of our professional career.  This is putting stages 2 and 3 into practice.  For instance following interview models and having a conscious approach and rationale during guidance interviews.  Early on in our career (and this is certainly my own experience) we spend a lot of time moving between stages as we observe, learn and experiment. You would expect a careers practitioner with experience to be spending more of their time in active experimentation or in other words doing what they are trained and able to do.  Although as this is a cycle the expectation is that as new experiences are added we continuously  phase shift through.

Like all theories and models Kolb’s four stage model has attracted criticism. I’ve read comments calling it epistemologically problematic (yes I had to look that up!) which really highlights there is no universal agreement of how we all learn.

For example, how we learn has been argued as much on a philosophical basis as it has a scientific basis.  Different camps for this include constructivism, empiricism, idealism and rationalism.  Quite simply Kolb’s model does not accommodate all of these perspectives (its primary focus is empiricism or learning from experience).

Although I have argued a strength is its relative correlation to how careers professionals may develop, the actual process is quite simplistic and mechanical but nevertheless influential and well worth sharing and blogging about.

Reading McLeod, S. A. (2010). Kolb – Learning Styles. Retrieved from

If it's good enough for Einstein! Image Flickr under CC from

If it’s good enough for Einstein! Image Flickr under CC from

Feel-good & inspiring stories

Inspiration can come in many guises but I just wanted to share two videos that I’ve favourited in my Youtube playlist. They seemed to fit a couple of group sessions I’ve recently trialed on constructing a career narrative and both really resonated and impacted on the students (in a good way).

It’s hard not to view these without them pulling on your heart strings as well providing some incredibly powerful messages for life and career.  Anyway, I don’t want to give too much away but if you’ve not seen them before then maybe find some time to give yourself a well earned pick me up.  PS.  Don’t forget to share…….

Josh – Opening doors and hearts (6:04)

2014 MUM Graduation Jim Carrey (7:42)

Check out for more inspiring stories.


Motivational techniques in careers interviews

The requirement for motivation appears to sit high on the agenda in today’s modern world.  Whether it’s an advert for a branded porridge to give us the ‘best start’ in the morning (I find a strong coffee helps me best) or it’s one of those, never-seen-before inspirational quotes (no room for Nike’s ‘just do it’ then) – popping up in your LinkedIn, Twitter or Facebook news feed; motivation seems to be everywhere these days. It is also pretty important, as I’m sure you’ll agree, as without it the temptation to lie in bed all day reading those aforementioned motivational quotes on your social media channels would be too great.

Who says coffee can't motivate

Who says coffee can’t motivate

The detail and theory underlying motivation is interesting stuff. Those with big brains say it can be broken down into two strands.  Extrinsic and intrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is believed to be a stronger driver for behaviour than extrinsic motivation. Why?  Well, intrinsic motivation relies on tapping into  a person’s beliefs, values and emotions.  For example having a hobby for fun of it.  This doesn’t always make intrinsic motivation rational – far from it.  Following your local football team who aren’t doing very well and suffering disappointment when they keep losing whilst at the same time costing you the equivalent of a second mortgage is a good example.  On the face of it this doesn’t appear logical but the drivers here are loyalty, emotional attachment and identity to a locality (unless you support Man Utd).

Extrinsic motivation is when people are driven by external factors and events rather than the internal feelings  of intrinsic motivation.  Extrinsic motivation is closely related to what psychologists call operant conditioning based on the work of B.F Skinner from the 1930s.  Skinner believed behaviour could best be explained by the interaction and involvement of positive, negative and neutral reinforcement.  In other words rewarding or punishing actions to elicit behavioural change or maintenance behaviour. This relates closely towards the motivation to repeat behaviour or cease that behaviour.  For example, work can be associated with the reward of earning money.  Money can therefore reinforces the behaviour of turning up for work each day.  Another example may be completing work due to the pressure exerted by your manager.  The message here may be “if this work is not completed you will get into trouble”.

In my careers guidance work I regularly see clients  where motivation to change themselves or their situation seems to underline many of the reasons why they booked an appointment to see me.  For this reason I thought it would be useful to identify and describe some of the tools we have at our disposal to help understand and facilitate client motivation in a careers context.

Open questioning: Is a basic but powerful tool – possibly the most powerful – as it can do two things.  1)  Understand their story.  i.e elicit information and understanding of a client’s situation, feelings and what they want help with.  2) The process also draws out those feelings into the open potentially allowing clients to be the narrators of their own solutions.   Open questioning works well on an intrinsic level.  Clients are talking about themselves, their feelings and thoughts. It can open the door to reflection but also allows an adviser to interpret and challenge assumptions on self-efficacy. Open questioning allows us to understand external motivators such as the value a person places on money  in their life and career.  It can help get the internal debate out into the open and so is the foundation for then using other tools such as decisional balance and scaling.

Decisional balance (cost/benefit analysis): A decisional balance sheet can be a very effective tool for countering ambivalence in that to make it work both pros and cons of decisions need to be identified and valued.   In this sense a decisional balance sheet could help a client process and move towards making a  decision.   This is especially true if there are more weighted benefits towards one scenario than another (or indeed less disadvantages).  Ultimately this process is about making the unconscious, conscious.

Scaling (1-10) Scaling is a technique regularly employed in solution focused therapies  and interviews and allows the professional to try and re-frame a response away from an all or nothing answer.  The reality of the scale sits solely in the interview.  It isn’t scientific, but it does represent the perception of a client to an issue.  A scale can be used to represent two dichotomous views or states.  A scaling question I could use with a client could be: “On a scale of 1-10, with one very not very useful and ten being extremely useful, how useful do you believe the careers service could be in helping your achieve your careers aims?” The answer can open further probing questions but it is also a lense that enables the adviser to think about possible thought processes the client is experiencing.  For example if your client answered “two”(gulp!)  a follow up question could be “why do you think the careers service would not be able to help you?”.  The scale can also track progress.  So for example if the same question was asked of client at the start of  a session , I could ask the same scaling question at the end to see if there was perceived progress. 

Scaling therefore does not aid the client in isolation as it still requires prompting, probing and interpretative skills from the adviser.  It means scaling can be used as part of a narrative, person centred approach as a way of assigning some measurable value.  So for instance these values could form part of a decisional balance analysis.

Looking forward: Solution focused therapy follows  a key principle of identifying the problem and enabling steps to find solutions.  The focus is on looking forward and finding a fix  rather than looking back and spending time discussing the problem in the first place.  Solution Focused Brief Therapy is a branch of psychotherapy and so is not something that is professionally or strictly practiced within a guidance context by careers practitioners.   However, the simple premise of working towards a solution/s is something that can be employed with clients   The rationale is as follows:

SFBT……originated in an interest in the inconsistencies to be found in problem behaviour. From this came the central notion of ‘exceptions’: however serious, fixed or chronic the problem there are always exceptions and these exceptions contain the seeds of the client’s own solution.

Source: Advances in Psychiatric Treatment Solution-focused brief therapy (2014)

An example of this in a careers context could be a client that only sees failure in their career decision making and current occupation choice.  However, an exception in this case could be the learning experience contained in those perceived failures.  In other words, maybe the role isn’t working out but it has enabled the client to refine what they are really looking for.

Looking forward sits well within guidance practice in that it accepts the potential limitations of the careers practitioners expertise in counselling and moves the interaction into a coaching capacity that may better fit a practitioners efficacy.

Useful Sources

Advances in Psychiatric Treatment Solution-focused brief therapy (2014)

Changing Minds (2013) Motivation



The graduate market in 2015

I’ve just finished reading the annual High Fliers graduate market report for 2015 and so I wanted to report its main highlights for those of you with limited time. First off it’s worth noting the research by High Fliers is focused on The Times Top 100 graduate employers for 2014, so it’s a snapshot of the labour market, but nonetheless an interesting one. More comprehensive data on the UK graduate labour market can be sourced through , Higher Education Statistics Agency’s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey (DLHE), the AGR and the ONS.

I must admit to getting a sense of déjà vu from the 2014 report which I blogged about here. Many of the headline messages and themes are the same – especially around job growth and graduates needing work experience. So I’ve grouped together what I think are the main findings and points of interest below.

The graduate job market is healthy with continued growth. We’ve also broken through the psychological barrier of passing pre-recession 2007 levels of recruitment.  Student numbers into HE have dipped from the heights of 2009/2010 but are still strong which means there are more vacancies for undergrads/grads to apply for.  What may be a game changer is the removing of the cap of student numbers into higher education.  It is questionable if supply will keep up with demand with such a transformational policy.

This substantial increase in graduate vacancies for 2015 takes graduate recruitment beyond the pre-recession peak in the graduate job market in 2007 and means that there will be more opportunities for this summer’s university-leavers than at any time in the last decade.

The UK’s leading employers plan to expand their graduate recruitment even further in 2015 with 8.1% more entry-level vacancies than last year, the third consecutive year that graduate vacancies have increased.

The 1st year is the new final year. The recruitment and selection pipeline gets earlier and earlier and the 2015 report echoes the same messages from the previous year. I think this is one of the main factors driving the employability agenda in HE. Careers services are savvy enough to know that if students are not ticking certain boxes their chances to get on the graduate treadmill (if that is the aim) are severely diminished. It also demonstrates why universities are investing heavily in employer engagement staffing and activities. The term “business development” is also becoming more prevalent in HE circles are institutions strive to create mutually beneficial relationships with business.

Recruiters have confirmed that 31% of this year’s entry-level positions are expected to be filled by graduates who have already worked for their organisations, either through paid internships, industrial placements or vacation work.

Over four-fifths of the UK’s leading graduate employers are offering paid work experience programmes for students and recent graduates during the 2014-2015 academic year – an unprecedented 13,049 paid work placements are available.

Two-thirds of employers provide paid vacation internships for penultimate year students and over half offer industrial placements for undergraduates (typically lasting 6-12 months as part of a university degree course).

Many more employers now also have work experience places for first year undergraduates – over a quarter of organisations offer paid internships and two-fifths of employers run introductory courses, open days and other taster experiences for first year students.

A change in perception and approach: Students very often gravitate towards well-known, trusted prestige brands when applying for graduate positions. Aldi may not initially be on everyone’s shopping list (sorry!) but the salary makes you sit up and take notice. If recruiters talk about the “talent” (so not necessary the subject knowledge and degree title) then surely the synergy to this is graduates must look at the “opportunity”.  I think this is an important point for careers professionals to make to students in their discussions.

The highest published graduate starting salary for 2015 is at Aldi (£42,000)

More places, more applicants. Evidence of the employability agenda shining through in HE? Seems to suggest undergraduates and graduates are making more timely and better quality applications.

A third of employers said they had received more completed graduate job applications during the early part of the recruitment season than they had last year and a similar proportion believed the quality of applications had improved too.

Together, the UK’s top employers have received 6% more graduate job applications so far, compared with the equivalent period in the 2013-2014 recruitment round.

High Fliers 2015